In the comments to this post, I said that I would ask a(n Orthodox) friend with a recent doctorate in geology to write his thoughts on the article in Yated Neeman about the age of the universe. My friend's initial e-mail had an outline of his thoughts but he subsequently sent me the following:
In the current issue of Tradition, Rabbi Carmy, in his editor's note, addresses the Slifkin controversy, and the question of science and religious belief more broadly. I agree with most of what he says, and he says it much better than I could.Rabbi Carmy's essay can be found online here, although only subscribers can access the full article.
He does not address the specifics (e.g. age of the earth, etc.), but as you'll see there, that's sort of his point.